Do You Have to Be Smart to Be a Pilot?

do you have to be smart to be a pilot

It’s obvious that the field of aviation demands a lot of time and commitment, but do you have to be smart to be a pilot? The short answer is no, but the details can be a lot more complicated than that. Being a pilot is, by no means, a simple task, and you’ll need to … Read more

How Much Snow Does It Take to Cancel a Flight?

How Much Snow Does It Take to Cancel a Flight

You’ve probably heard that bad weather can affect a scheduled flight. Chances are, you’re one of the many passengers who experienced a delayed flight because of too much snow. So, how much snow does it take to cancel a flight? Well, canceling a flight isn’t based on how much snow there is, but on how … Read more

FBOs and MROs – What Are They?

FBOs and MROs

In the aviation industry, various facilities and services are provided to aircraft and their personnel. In both the commercial and non-commercial sectors of aviation, there are facilities known as FBOs and MROs which fulfill different services for operators and aircraft owners. Known as a Fixed Base Operators (FBO), FBOs generally provide services to General Aviation … Read more

Gulfstream Nutcracker System – IV/V Aircraft Series

Gulfstream Nutcracker System

A system specific to the Gulfstream IV/V aircraft series, the nutcracker switch is located aft of the thrust levers in the cockpit. The primary function of the Gulfstream nutcracker system is to verify the spoiler deployment mode in which the aircraft is configured to.  Upon extension of the landing gear on approach, the flight crew … Read more

What is a Step Climb?

During the pre-flight phase, the flight crew of the aircraft conducts flight planning for the flight. As part of this flight planning, the routing, weather, speeds, and cruise altitude are determined. For a conventional short to medium-haul flight, a cruising altitude is filed as part of the flight plan. In some instances, in which the … Read more

What is Top of Climb (T/C)?

top of climb

Top of Climb, commonly abbreviated as T/C or TOC, is the calculated point at which the aircraft reaches its cruising altitude.  At the Top of Climb, the aircraft levels off and is neither descending nor ascending; the climb phase of flight has now been completed.  It is important that the flight crew have determined T/C … Read more

How to Calculate Top of Descent (T/D)? 

How to Calculate Top of Descent

In en-route flight management and planning, Top of Descent (T/D) is the calculated point during a flight in which the aircraft begins descent for the arrival airport. Top of Descent (T/D) can be calculated either manually or automatically.  On modern commercial aircraft, T/D calculations are performed automatically by the Flight Management System (FMS).  How is … Read more

Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Inertial Reference System (IRS) – Differences and Functions

Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Inertial Reference System (IRS)

Commercial aircraft navigation systems consist of processes which provide a positioning system to the aircraft. These positioning systems communicate with the onboard navigation systems. This communication allows the exact location of the aircraft to be identified. In order to achieve accurate positioning, aircraft are equipped with Inertial Reference Systems (IRS) or Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). … Read more

How Common Are Touch and Go Landings?

Touch and Go Landings

During the landing phase of a flight, there are numerous outcomes that may occur depending on a number of factors. On a scheduled commercial flight, the most common outcome is a full-stop landing. However, for numerous reasons outlined below, there are instances in which an aircraft may perform a touch-and-go landing. How Common Are Touch … Read more

Flaperons | Aviation Glossary


On fixed-wing aircraft, there are numerous aerodynamic devices installed which serve a number of functions. These functions include the generation of lift and drag across the airfoil. Two of the aerodynamic devices found on aircraft are flaps and ailerons. Flaps being lift-generating devices in which the chord of the wing can be changed while also … Read more

Autobrake RTO Mode

Autobrake RTO Mode

Autobrake RTO Mode systems on aircraft provide automated deceleration functions during the take off and landing phases of flight. On sophisticated commercial aircraft, this automation reduces the workload for the flight crew while also ensuring the braking power applied is at a smooth and sufficient rate. The deceleration and braking power applied depends on the … Read more

CFM56 vs IAE V2500 – Airbus A320 Family Engine Types

CFM56 vs IAE V2500

On the Airbus A320 family, there are 2 engine types available: the CFM International CFM56 and the IAE V2500. There are numerous characteristics to both engine types which suit particular sets of operations. Read out the comparison between CFM56 vs IAE V2500 engine types. As of 2022, approximately 65% of Airbus A320 aircraft types are powered … Read more